Ex- tions of multiple discourses that en- amining these aesthetics and their ex- code competing premises. Historically, cies. As a result, environmental integrity with national greening re-articulates nuclear tech- security Broda-Bahm, These nology with its suppressed and loamy developments have in turn been fueled history of environmental contami- by specific events, such as the projec- nation. One form in- Significantly, these depictions un- volves revisionist cartography that dermine the official narrative of Cold maps the secret histories of U.
Employing codes of yields compelling records of ecocide color, shape, and two-dimensional vec- generated by nuclear weapons pro- tor space, this cartography demon- duction Davis, One notable example, military. As a result, it chal- recording, selecting, arranging — and lenges claims by Canadian citizens and writing captions for — its accompany- officials to marginal involvement in — ing photographs personal communi- and thus limited accountability for — cation, October 24, No humans are images and the value of their close visible in this scene.
The drums are reading.
The benefit of DOE stakeholders; they as- varying heights of the stacks are com- sess environmental contamination at posed so that in receding to the back- various U. It is not describe remedies being performed by clear whether the scene is lit by natural DOE industrial and scientific contrac- or artificial sources: a bright white tors. This from the image caption, have placed process involves distinct but related this painted, plastic owl figure to scare modes of transformation. Because its artificiality is not meanings are also rearticulated.
Poten- immediately apparent, and because it tially, the relationship between their is directly gazing at the viewer, the owl old and new forms generates reflection figure appears both incongruous and about the post-Cold War trajectories faintly ominous.
Del Tredici personal communi- Repurposing occurs in a wide var- cation, October 24, notes that, iety of post-Cold War sites. This re-discovery storage. Potentially, however, this and exhibition of nuclear history is reading co-exists with another, also potentially nostalgic.
This appropriation icons Taylor and Freer, One stands in stark contrast to the Cold site of nuclear-heritage controversy, War construction of a massive, com- subsequently, is the American West — plex technological apparatus to detect a region dense with nuclear weapons and deter nuclear threats. Here, na- production and related sites. While ture has been reactivated and exists in some heritage proponents urge preser- awkward relationship to culture. This latter pref- ships between nature and culture erence suggests a critical understand- configured by Cold War history.
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This term describes an aesthetic in As cultures confront their local nu- which icons of the Cold War nuclear clear histories, the politics of iconogra- system are currently being con- phy intensify. The politics of ment during the s to record the these practices vary widely. A recent — effects of nuclear blasts and radiation and arguably regressive — example in- on structures and their inhabitants.
In Japan, alter- place Adams, Ideally, these ventures open visibility of surviving hibakusha bodies. These strategy: the ultra-secret National Se- groups have chosen to raze, preserve, curity and Central Intelligence Agen- or restore particular icons based upon cies have recently opened gift shops for the quality of memory they evoke e.
These grief, contemplation, and simulation. The Argonne Illi- These practices insert Cold conducted by staff Gregory, Potentially, this discourse recently approached absurdity when a connotes reduced nuclear risk and punc- decommissioned Russian nuclear sub- tuates the nuclear age as closed. In marine originally sold by the Russian depictions of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Navy to a Finnish company was for example, repurposing provokes placed for sale on the Internet auction but ultimately contains morbid ex- site eBay Miller, These texts utilize strates, repurposing produces a last sensationalism and speculation as a type of iconography related to the pivot of pleasure around which view- growing market for Cold War kitsch ers can contemplate alternate histories and recreation Flake, ; and futures.
In this tinations of nuclear-themed leisure. At process, however, repurposing poten- these sites, tourists may consume de- tially blunts critical appreciation of con- pictions of nuclear weapons pro- tinued nuclear weapons development. It duction and use. This website prematurely memorializes the nuclear condenses a larger body of travel- system, even as it performs the func- related discourse and imagery which tion of revelation. Its promotion of emerged during , and framed the nostalgia can encourage dependency fiftieth anniversary of the atomic on a Cold War political economy that bombings as an opportunity to explore sustains nuclearism as a viable ideol- historically forbidden regions of nu- ogy for the post-Cold War era clear space.
In oppo- of this discourse e. But only if you accept it as Virtual reality technologies may inevitable. I say slam its doors for will revive the historical role played by good. A Repurposing, then, is a rich site for recent Los Angeles Times story Ashton, the critical study of post-Cold War profiled the creation of an culture. In sequence, these plutonium production facility. One of the contract em- desktop computer, scanning photo- ployees currently creating the archive, graphs for the archive.
The first is that in A second claim is that weapons production? Finally, the article em- comprehensiveness potentially inhibits phasizes the added value of these im- reflection concerning the inevitable ages — beyond revealing a previously contingency of any archive, and of its obscured history — in assisting DOE components. Four potential claims lost, or are still classified. The absence come to mind. It does not tiative indicates that public access to problematize, however, the conse- nuclear-historical information is al- quences of that function — for exam- ways partial, local, and subject to revo- ple, concerning which of the currently cation Weeks, This claim does competing historical narratives about not deny that such an archive might, U.
Atomic Histories- Nuclear Watch of New Mexico
Instead, it emphasizes that the In his cul- War II. As dis- not illegitimate. They were, neverthe- played in Figure 2, this aesthetic privi- less, more efficient at producing equiv- leged staged images of happy, virtuous alent levels of destruction, unique in residents and workers, successfully producing lethal radiation effects, and conforming to the institutional impera- thus more threatening. Because, addi- tives of nuclear weapons production. While the Bomb effectively de- terred a direct conflict between the This final aesthetic involves the nu- superpowers, it did not prevent their clear significance of iconography sur- participation or their use of surrogate rounding post-Cold War interventions clients in conventional wars.
In these by U. The events conflicts, despite veiled threats by considered here include the — officials, nuclear weapons proved to be Persian Gulf War between U. Coalition and Iraqi forces, dox.
Table of contents
Their actual use, officials con- and the Operation Allied Force ceded, would be internationally conducted by NATO against Serbian condemned as disproportionate and forces in the former Yugoslavia. This perhaps racist and could trigger nu- discussion traces connections between clear retaliation by opponents. By examining These premises of Cold War mili- these images, we can understand how tary strategy are currently in flux. One iconography alternately exorcises and contributing force is technological reanimates the specter of nuclear innovation: the increasing power and weapons.
In its operations, virtual buried targets. As discussed earlier, a warfare has been conducted and rep- recent U. Its images — in- ture Review has reflected these cluding those from missiles in flight changes by incorporating a mixture of carried on cable news networks — ap- elements. While this teriality of destruction. It represents, move potentially segregates and subor- however, a significant transformation dinates nuclear weapons, the Review in the rhetoric of war.
This change has also sustains the development of nu- resulted from the growing overlap be- clear earth-penetrators. This proposal tween military and entertainment in- has generated opposition from several terests in the ownership, design, and quarters, including: arms controllers, deployment of various media tech- because it signals elimination of the nologies.
Increasingly, these technolo- traditional nuclear firebreak; health gies converge as a multi-functional officials and scientists, because even apparatus devoted to surveillance, at- low-yield weapons detonated under- tack, and entertainment Der Derian, ground generate significant fallout; Implicitly, these critiques estab- and pacifists, because such forces en- lish several areas of continuity between courage U.
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
That is, the use of apparently In this process, the in- visibility of conventional weapons in these nuclear weapons has arguably been conflicts has inhibited critical analysis neglected. Relatedly, Chow con- Gusterson a has argued that im- cludes that the culmination of nuclear- ages of the Gulf War sustained Ameri- backed U. This pattern of home in the low-tech, domestic avoidance, he argued, has been con- terrorist bombing by white, former ditioned by nuclear weapons in that soldiers, no less of Oklahoma City.
The Gulf War was distinctively ship e. Jeffords con- quences of that usage e. Additionally, we may power nuclear tensions has failed to consider how these practices serve produce widespread intolerance for larger conversations in political culture the practices of mass death. As a re- e. The two articles form part of a calate and cross the nuclear firebreak. Although technological inno- In different ways, the two articles in vation has now partly de-nuclearized question focus on the role of military that referent, framing the Gulf War as technology in the post-Cold War era.
This article is spread conventional and nuclear weapons are across four pages, with the first two re-articulated. These relationships are pages tilted horizontally and oriented both material e.
Of particular proliferation of weapons of mass de- interest, then, are images through struction Rose, Uniquely, the which cultural meanings for military final two pages of the first article and technologies are constructed and the two pages of the second article transformed. This iconography both occupy the same pages, formatted in differs from and complements discur- separate horizontal bands.
The re- sive practices such as the naming of mainder of the first story streams weapons Kaufmann, Its mean- across the top half of those pages, ings include the strategic status of vari- while the second article occupies the ous weapons e.
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The figure re- mimics a ticker display: Colored yel- sembles familiar models of this device low on the left-hand page and red on in its black color, small inset buttons, the right, this band contains a claim and command functions. One feature, that the U. First, we note mote-control device Figure 3.