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Bohr, in response, said, "Einstein, don't tell God what to do.

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All this familiar story is true, but it leaves out an irony. Bohr's version of quantum mechanics was deeply flawed, but not for the reason Einstein thought. The Copenhagen interpretation describes what happens when an observer makes a measurement, but the observer and the act of measurement are themselves treated classically.

This is surely wrong: Physicists and their apparatus must be governed by the same quantum mechanical rules that govern everything else in the universe. But these rules are expressed in terms of a wave function or, more precisely, a state vector that evolves in a perfectly deterministic way. So where do the probabilistic rules of the Copenhagen interpretation come from?

Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the resolution of the problem, which I cannot go into here. It is enough to say that neither Bohr nor Einstein had focused on the real problem with quantum mechanics. The Copenhagen rules clearly work, so they have to be accepted. The problem of thinking in terms of classical measurements of a quantum system becomes particularly acute in the field of quantum cosmology , where the quantum system is the universe. Jaynes , [61] from a Bayesian point of view, argued that probability is a measure of a state of information about the physical world.

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Quantum mechanics under the Copenhagen interpretation interpreted probability as a physical phenomenon, which is what Jaynes called a mind projection fallacy. Common criticisms of the Copenhagen interpretation often lead to the problem of continuum of random occurrences: whether in time as subsequent measurements, which under certain interpretations of the measurement problem may happen continuously or even in space.

A recent experiment showed that a particle may leave a trace about the path which it used when travelling as a wave — and that this trace exhibits equality of both paths. The view that particle diffraction logically guarantees the need for a wave interpretation has been questioned. A recent experiment has carried out the two-slit protocol with helium atoms.

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The Ensemble interpretation is similar; it offers an interpretation of the wave function, but not for single particles. The consistent histories interpretation advertises itself as "Copenhagen done right". Although the Copenhagen interpretation is often confused with the idea that consciousness causes collapse , it defines an "observer" merely as that which collapses the wave function. Under realism and determinism , if the wave function is regarded as ontologically real, and collapse is entirely rejected, a many worlds theory results.

If wave function collapse is regarded as ontologically real as well, an objective collapse theory is obtained.

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Under realism and determinism as well as non-localism , a hidden variable theory exists, e. Some physicists, including Paul Dirac [74] , Richard Feynman , and David Mermin , subscribe to the instrumentalist interpretation of quantum mechanics, a position often equated with eschewing all interpretation.

The position is summarized by the sentence "Shut up and calculate! While this slogan is sometimes attributed to Dirac or Feynman, it seems to have been coined by Mermin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics involving wavefunction collapse. Classical mechanics Old quantum theory Bra—ket notation Hamiltonian Interference. Advanced topics. Quantum annealing Quantum chaos Quantum computing Density matrix Quantum field theory Fractional quantum mechanics Quantum gravity Quantum information science Quantum machine learning Perturbation theory quantum mechanics Relativistic quantum mechanics Scattering theory Spontaneous parametric down-conversion Quantum statistical mechanics.

Main articles: wave function collapse and quantum decoherence. Further information: Wave-particle duality. Further information: Interpretations of quantum mechanics. European Journal of Physics. World Scientific. Bibcode : qpor.


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Mehra and H. Rechenberg, The historical development of quantum theory , Springer-Verlag, , p. A study in mythology" PDF.

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Philosophy of Science. Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv We agree, of course, that the other interpretations are nonsense, and I believe that this is clear in my book, and in previous papers. Anyway, I cannot now, unfortunately, change the book since the printing began enough time ago.

Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Archived from the original on For example, in two classic articles on the foundations of quantum mechanics, Ballentine and Stapp give diametrically opposite definitions of 'Copenhagen. History Philos.

Modern Physics. Bibcode : quant. The development of the quantum theory, pp. Pauli with the assistance of L.


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  • Rosenfeld and V. Weisskopf , Pergamon, London, at p. The probability function, which covered a wide range of possibilities, is suddenly reduced to a much narrower range by the fact that the experiment has led to a definite result, that actually a certain event has happened. In the formalism this reduction requires that the so-called interference of probabilities, which is the most characteristic phenomena [ sic ] of quantum theory, is destroyed by the partly undefinable and irreversible interactions of the system with the measuring apparatus and the rest of the world.

    Criticism and counterproposals to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, Chapter 8, pp. The words of this language represent the concepts of ordinary life, which in the scientific language of physics may be refined to the concepts of classical physics. These concepts are the only tools for an unambiguous communication about events, about the setting up of experiments and about their results. Holton, Y. On pp. Moreover, the very concept of a real factual state is debarred by the orthodox theoreticians. The situation arrived at corresponds almost exactly to that of the good old Bishop Berkeley.

    Translation as 'The actual content of quantum theoretical kinematics and mechanics' here : "Since the statistical nature of quantum theory is so closely [linked] to the uncertainty in all observations or perceptions, one could be tempted to conclude that behind the observed, statistical world a "real" world is hidden, in which the law of causality is applicable. We want to state explicitly that we believe such speculations to be both fruitless and pointless. The only task of physics is to describe the relation between observations.

    Foundations of Physics. Bibcode : FoPh This attitude changed drastically with his paper in which he introduced the uncertainty relations — there he put forward the point of view that it is the theory which decides what can be observed. Time : Bibcode : tqi..

    Journey by Night: Quantum Encryption Bk 3

    Bibcode : Sci The interpretation of quantum mechanics, Br. Einstein's statistical theories, in Albert Einstein: Philosopher Scientist , ed. This was introduced by Heisenberg in his uncertainty paper [3] and later postulated by von Neumann as a dynamical process independent of the Schrodinger equation", Claus Kiefer Retrieved The transfer in quanta of radiation momentum to matter, Proc. Bibcode : ForPh..

    Schlosshauer; J. Kofler; A. Zeilinger Norsen, S. New York Review of Books. Retrieved 8 January Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL.. Pais, Einstein and the quantum theory , Reviews of Modern Physics 51 , — , p. Paul Arthur Shilpp, Harper, , p. Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods : 7. Schmidt; et al.

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    Bibcode : PhRvL. See also the article on Bohr—Einstein debates. Likely there are even more such apparent interactions in various areas of the photon, for example when reflecting from the whole shutter. Eckart and F. Hoyt, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp.